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Climate Change Is Altering the Future of Our Food System

When people talk about climate change, they are usually referencing the recent changes in average temperature, precipitation, and frequency of natural disasters as a result of an abnormally rapid increase in the average temperature of the earth’s surface.

In Earth’s history, the climate has been recorded to warm and cool over time, but the current change is happening too quickly as a result of human activity, and we aren’t seeing enough cooling. The disastrous effects are already being felt worldwide.

One human activity that is intertwined with climate change is farming. Humanity needs access to healthy foods, especially ones that aren’t contaminated with pesticides and other chemicals. But some conventional farming methods contribute to the greenhouse gas effect and, most significantly, are hindered by the effects of climate change, such as droughts, excessive rain, and extreme temperatures.

While more warm weather in some places may sound like a good thing for agriculture, the negative impacts of climate change will outweigh any beneficial ones. Not only do some conventional farming practices contribute to climate change, but they also become less productive as the climate changes. More and stronger natural disasters, including droughts, floods, forest fires, and hurricanes, damage crops and reduce farmers’ ability to grow.

Changing growing seasons and habitat ranges make it harder to grow crops because specific climates are needed for certain crops. For example, in the United States extremes in precipitation through decreased freshwater supply in the southwest and increased flooding in the northeast threaten crop productivity. Indirect impacts make agricultural production even more difficult. Pests, diseases, and invasive plants will all increase in abundance. And an increase in temperature can only lead to a decrease in the quality and quantity of food produced.

Changes in the ozone and an increase in greenhouse gases will continue to impact the future of our food systems. Food insecurity is a global problem that will be intensified as conventional farming becomes less productive. The supply chain is stressed, food availability will go down, and food will become more expensive, let alone there is a potential that an increase in pesticides and chemicals will be needed to keep produce and other foods healthy.

Current farming practices depend on reliable precipitation, predictable seasonal changes, and known temperatures and will have to adapt as global warming changes these previously reliable resources. One potential solution, vertical farming, eliminates the reliance on a variable climate by moving the agricultural production of specialty crops indoors. In order for us to stabilize our food supply, and have the ability to increase it as our population continues to grow, we need to invest more into more controlled ways to grow our food.

Author: Yaheya Heikal

The Internet of Things’ (IoT) Potential as a Catalyst for Environmental Good

By Alistair Fulton

The theme of this year’s Earth Day was “invest in our planet” – a fitting call to action for individuals, communities and organizations that, as a collective, contribute to human-caused climate change. According to the latest IPCC report:

  • If the Earth warms at 4℃, water scarcity and droughts will affect up to 4 billion people
  • Projected flood damages may be up to 2x higher at 2℃ warming
  • 58,950 wildfires burned 10.1 million acres in 2020

To manage our urgent climate issue, we must strike a balance between economic or productivity growth and reducing harm caused by that growth. This balance is delicate. This equation is not easy-to-solve; however, if we cannot invest in solutions that achieve “more from less,” then we cannot curb climate change at the pace our environment demands.

Much of the conversation has been focused on long-term answers involving energy, recycling, deforestation, and more – rightly so. But, how can we move the needle in the short term and mitigate minor inefficiencies that snowball? Realizing the potential of the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT is a system of technologies that provides data, analytics and insights to improve process efficiency, increase productivity and reduce waste. Traditionally, IoT’s potential has been limited because it was too hard to build, implement and scale.

This is no longer the case. Time, resources and smarts have gone into making this technology more accessible. Examples include maturation of cloud-based IoT platforms, lower power reliance of sensors, and changing global standards that allow technologies to work better together. Here are three examples of how the IoT is having a real, measurable impact on the fight against climate change:

  1. Water Conservation: Smart sensors fitted into water management systems, smart homes and buildings enable real-time monitoring of water usage to detect leaks and limit water
  2. Sustainable Farming: Farmers and ranchers can measure environmental conditions that influence crop production, track the health of livestock and create efficiencies that reduce environmental impact.
  3. Flood Monitoring: Sensors integrated with the IoT autonomously monitor rising sea levels, which are increasingly valuable in coastal regions with a high risk of flooding.

IoT is not the sole answer to our climate challenge, but this technology has untapped potential as a catalyst for social and environmental good. Investing in the right IoT is the answer to measuring our impact on the environment in real time, and the minor inefficiencies that equate to long-term climate problems.

8
Sep/21
0

Kathryn March and David Holmberg to receive Hillary Medal


Press release from MOUNTAIN LEGACY INTERNATIONAL
 07 September 2021

Kathryn March and David Holmberg to receive Hillary Medal

Anthropologists David Holmberg and Kathryn March will receive the 2021 Sir Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal for their many decades of friendship and assistance to Nepal, and for their leadership in educational exchange programs between Tribhuvan University and Cornell University.

The  Hillary  Medal was established in 2003 with the express approval of Hillary himself. It both recognizes Sir Edmund’s life-long commitment to the welfare of mountain people and their environment and also encourages the continuing emulation of his example.

Dr. Kumar Mainali, Geospatial Data Scientist at the Chesapeake Conservancy and President of Mountain Legacy International, announced the selection of the husband and wife team. “Professors Holmberg and March have carried out field work among the Tamang of Nepal for more than forty years, documenting and preserving customs and beliefs that are under pressure, and even re-introducing folk music that was no longer in circulation. They built a collaboration between Cornell and Tribhuvan University that became one of the most important vehicles for research and academic exchange in Nepal and also provided mentorship in economic initiatives, particularly ecotourism focused on Phyukhri Ridge. In the wake of the 2015 earthquakes, they were effective fundraisers for recovery efforts. Their achievements on behalf of highland communities of Nepal, and of the country itself, are truly exemplary.”

Regarding their scholarship, Dr. March observes, “I think that both David Holmberg and I saw our work as an effort to record, preserve, and honor traditions that were being lost as pressures mounted on all ethnic communities to assimilate for the sake of development. Tamang people who wanted to advance had to assimilate. National education, language, and media policies were Nepali-language only. I remember being at the dedication of a small stupa near Boudha to honor Santa Bir Lama, author of one of the only books about Tamang culture then available; all the speeches were being given in Nepali, and people were thrilled and shocked that I spoke up, in Tamang language, to plea for them not to forget the language and traditions that Santa Bir had championed.”

The award will be presented In Ithaca NY, home of Cornell University, on  December 11 (International Mountain Day).

More information:  https://www.hillarymedal.com/medal2021dhkm.html

Contact: Seth Sicroff, Director of Sir Edmund Hillary Mountain Legacy Medal Project sicroff@hillarymedal.com

When cleaner air saves lives on the road

1. Care for safety and environment leading to better company results
Did you know that sensible driving leads to approximately 7.5 tons less CO2 emissions per year because it rewards slow acceleration? Trucks drive around 110000 km per year, using 60000 litres of fuel. You could save up to 12000 litres by rewarding conscious driving. Meaning you could save 12000 € per truck!

2. Making chauffeur the heroes
Every small change in the right direction counts, but if you really want to make a change, you have to focus on the drivers. They don’t drive poorly because they prefer to. Driving is a habit, and we have to change old habits into new, to make an impactful difference.

3. Beating the competition
There is fierce competition between transport and delivery companies when it comes to attracting chauffeurs. Finding good chauffeurs, and keeping them motivated is an ongoing challenge. These companies need to cut costs, to be able to beat the competition and make a profit. Drivers wages and fuel are the largest operational costs in our industry. Now, you don’t have to choose between cutting costs and rewarding drivers anymore.

4. Instead of controlling, think about REWARDING good behaviour.
It is proven how positive reinforcement works exceedingly better than punishment. Reinforcing good behaviour with positive outcomes (rewards) will certainly lead to this act being repeated. Drivestar is this tool. It gives drivers a score, based on acceleration, deceleration and speeding. Carefully enriched with external data, such as vehicle type, traffic and weather conditions, so it is transparent and fair to compare. In the app, the amount of money saved is clearly seen.

HIGHER SCORE = HIGHER FINANCIAL BONUS.

The fact is people don’t like to be scored. This is why the Drivestar score is introduced using teams. No one wants to be the one responsible for their team failing. Teamwork enhances communication and overall results while giving a sense of companionship – as we know, chauffeuring could be a lonely job.

5. Everyone benefits from safer and cleaner driving
Can you say you rank amongst the best couriers in Europe? How can you prove it? How do you distinguish yourself from the competition? Drivestar gives drivers a reliable tool as proof they rank amongst the safest and most economical drivers. And it gives managers a tool to be able to easily recognise great drivers to hire. As well as proof they are a responsible company that cares about safety and are CO2-minded.

View PDF file

Written by: Nika Bitič

The Greater London Authority to Power New Air Quality Monitoring Network in the Fight Against Toxic Air

A global sensing and data analytics company empowering the world to reduce air pollution, today announce its partnership with the Greater London Authority in the fight against air pollution. Funded by the Mayor of London and supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies, the next phase of the Breathe London project will utilize Clarity’s low-cost air quality monitoring technology in the fight against London’s toxic air.

London is the first city to holistically integrate low-cost sensors with existing air quality infrastructure, making the project a blueprint for governments around the world to emulate, including the U.S., a country whose air pollution monitoring networks have fallen into disrepair according to the latest report from the U.S. Governmental Accountability Office (GAO).

More information about how London is adopting the low-cost solution, powering Breathe London can be found on Clarity’s website: https://www.clarity.io/.

How Technology Can Help the Environment

It is no secret that significant changes will need to be made to society if we want to reduce greenhouse gas emission to a safe level. Thankfully, technology that is already being developed and used has the potential to reduce toxic greenhouse gases and help us live a more sustainable lifestyle.

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, remote work has become commonplace, a trend which is expected to continue. Beyond saving employees and employers time and money, this arrangement has positive effects for the environment as well. For example, workers who no longer drive to an office are producing fewer greenhouse gases. Fully remote companies also do not require office space, reducing the amount of congestion in major cities, as well as waste created by an office.

The rise of Artificial Intelligence (AI) also has the potential to help save the environment. AI bot technology can monitor pollution levels in air, soil, and water, allowing scientists to see where pollution is the worst and where it is coming from. This can also catch organizations in the act of illegal dumping. AI can be used to further help by creating a “smart” electrical grid that maximizes efficiency in electric production and distribution.

Lastly, digital communication methods save a significant amount of resources. A tremendous amount of paper is saved thanks to electronic billing statements and emails. A company’s carbon footprint can also be reduced by conducting internal and external meetings via Zoom or another video conferencing app instead of flying out to meet clients in person.

However, it is important to keep in mind that there are risks to using technology as well. For example, AI algorithms can learn to make patterns based on factors such as race, gender and age. It is important, for the time being at least, that humans oversee this technology to prevent discrimination from occuring. Of course, remote work also means more workers are using electricity at home to power their laptops and office equipment. Plus, videoconferencing is often considered to be an inferior method of communication compared to in-person meetings.

Overall, technology is an important tool to creating a sustainable society. With the proper research and oversight, these resources make it possible for us to significantly reduce fossil fuels from our energy portfolio to create a cleaner and better future.

Contributed by:

Marie Johnson
Enlightened-Digital.com

Solar Energy, Technology Key to Patented “Green” Methane Breakthrough

Researchers from the University of Michigan and McGill University have developed a way to harvest solar energy and convert it into a carbon-neutral “green” methane that is capable of replacing natural gas. “Green” methane can be used as a form of synthetic gas because 90% of natural gas is comprised of methane.

 

“This is needed now because there is a desire to reduce and recycle CO2 and to move to a carbon-neutral economy,” said Zetian Mi, professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of Michigan, who together with Jun Song, professor of materials engineering at McGill University, led the research. 

 

The process for making “green” methane takes a page from nature’s playbook; it uses solar cell wafers to increase the efficiency of its artificial photosynthesis process. Because solar cell efficiency is 20% or higher, Mi and his team of researchers decided to use silicon (Si) solar cells to amp up the artificial photosynthesis process to make it more efficient. 

 

Essentially, the process creates a way to recycle stored CO2 or CO2 from smokestacks and convert it into a synthetic fuel that heavy industrial companies – like oil and gas, petrochemical, mining, and other companies – can use for their operations. Technologies that capture atmospheric CO2 and the infrastructure for transporting and distributing methane already exist. 

 

“The current approach to reducing CO2 emission often relies on transporting CO2 through pipelines and storage underground. We envision that large emitters of CO2 in the future can put that into a solar farm and generate [a clean burning] fuel,” Mi said.

 

To develop the “green” methane process, the team of researchers needed to break apart water molecules, figure out a way to bend a CO2 bond so that it can be used to form a new chemical and design a catalyst that could attach the hydrogen to carbon effectively. 

 

Ultimately, the team designed a catalyst device – made from a solar cell wafer covered with nanowires that are dotted with copper and iron nanoparticles – that can break down and reconnect carbon and hydrogen. The device inputs include sunlight and a thin film of water. In the future, such a device can also be designed to use electricity as an energy source when the sun isn’t shining. 

“It’s a technology with a lot of promise. There is no roadblock in terms of its scalability because this device is made of GaN [Gallium Nitride] and Si, the two most-produced semiconductors, and earth-abundant catalysts,” Mi said, noting that the patented technology can be commercially available within the next five to ten years. The University of Michigan holds the patents for this artificial photosynthesis device. 

 

Mi’s team has been working on artificial photosynthesis technology for 10 years. More recently, his team started collaborating with Song’s team at McGill University and with researchers at McMaster University on this project. 

 

Emissions Reduction Alberta, the Engineering Council of Canada, and the University of Michigan College of Engineering’s Blue Sky Program funded their research. 

Understanding Climate Change and Natural Disasters


Photo Credit: 12019 via Pixabay

All over the world, we hear about shocking earthquakes, powerful tsunamis and devastating cyclones all happening one after the other. Coupled with the current climate crisis, it’s natural to assume that the seemingly increasing and more devastating weather occurrences are attributed to the effects of climate change. However, the link between climate change and natural disasters isn’t always that straightforward. Below, we’ll try to dissect current claims on the connection between climate change and the increasing amount and severity of natural disasters.

Increasing Droughts

A drought is a prolonged dry period in the natural climate cycle. In recent decades, the outcomes of droughts have been lessened through man-made irrigation systems. With the negative effects brought about climate change, experts predict that droughts will become longer and more extreme by the end of the century. Researchers from the University of Arkansas found that if we don’t take steps to mitigate climate change, up to 60% of wheat-growing areas worldwide could have severe, prolonged and simultaneous droughts in the near future. If this prediction does materialize, this could shock the global food system and lead to food insecurity for many parts of the world. The findings reflect more than future predictions, as cases like Syria have already proven how intense droughts can upset a whole region.

Severity of Tropical Cyclones

Aside from droughts and heat waves, rainfall is another indicator of the detrimental effects of climate change on natural weather occurrences. The Independent interviewed Dr. Friederike Otto, the deputy director of the Environmental Change Institute at the University of Oxford, who said “We’re now finding that for many kinds of extreme weather events, especially heatwaves and extreme rainfall, we can be quite confident about the effect of climate change.” The US Geological Survey found that because of warmer ocean temperatures, tropical storms are becoming more severe. Most of these tropical storms are affecting archipelagic countries in certain parts of Asia. Daydreaming in Paradise says that the vulnerability of Southeast Asia to natural disasters is not only due to geographic location, but to how people there live. The region is full of young rapidly urbanizing economies where large populations are squeezed into poorly designed cities. As tropical storms become more common and more severe, these densely populated areas are at high risk.

Danger of Premature Conclusions

However, there is also a certain danger in immediately associating extreme natural disasters with climate change. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration report on hurricanes and global warming found that while anthropogenic warming is likely to cause more intense tropical cyclones, it’s still premature to conclude that the same can be said for other natural disasters like Atlantic hurricanes and earthquakes. While hurricane patterns are likely to be affected by man-made forces if they haven’t already, scientists have currently found no direct ties to the recent Hurricanes Harvey or Irma. Thus, although compelling arguments to the extricable causation between climate change and current natural disasters seem hard to deny, it’s always important to take everything with a grain of salt and look for claims that have proper scientific backing.

Written exclusively for ENN.com
by Melanie Friedman

8
Apr/19
0

Invisible Threat Following Natural Disasters

After a natural disaster strikes, it’s difficult to decide where to begin the recovery process. From water damage and electrical outages to damaged infrastructures and scattered debris, it can be an overwhelming task that requires endless months of hard work to salvage what’s left behind.

First responders, clean-up crews and local patrons are often eager to start the cleanup process and restore the home they all know and love. However, the reality is that the likelihood of environmental exposure is just as prominent as the visible damage left in front of our very eyes. We encourage anyone impacted by a natural disaster to protect their health before jumping into restoration efforts by learning of the typical toxins that arise from extreme weather.

Natural disasters can occur anywhere at any time and include everything from severe storms and floods to earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, dust storms, and tornadoes. While it’s true that the extent of toxic exposures depends on the location, those who live near areas that are vulnerable to natural disasters, such as the coast, are at higher risk.

Just this past summer, The D.C Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the EPA enforcing prevention practices to combat the accidental release of toxic chemicals. While these safety practices were planned to be implemented in March 2017, unfortunately the plan was delayed just three months before Hurricane Harvey struck our nation.

This catastrophic event resulted in major power outages throughout Houston, leaving the Arkema chemical plant unable to function and stop volatile chemicals from flooding the city. On top of this, New Orleans was also saturated with toxic sewage that included lead and arsenic, and both found to have adverse effects on human health.

Along with contaminated water, building products were once full of dangerous ingredients including lead, PCBs, and asbestos; thus, leftover debris can also pose a threat. Residents and workers should remain cautious of any old infrastructure including homes, public buildings, and even abandoned property that could have released airborne toxins as a result of damage. In the case of asbestos, avoiding exposure can be life-saving as the toxin is often associated with insidious cancer, mesothelioma.

While Hurricane Katrina ravaged three entire states covering nearly 90,000 miles, this major event brought government officials together, agreeing that our nation should have better protection practices in place for the future. Fortunately, the Obama administration began to relieve some concerns; however, certain manufacturing companies were unwilling to reveal relevant information and petitioned the EPA to reconsider the accidental release risk management policy. Although the agency is still processing the proposal, officials agree that first responders, at the very least, should be fully trained on the matter and provided with protective gear proper decontamination tents to prevent unnecessary exposure.


Poison Prevention Week: The Importance of Understanding Toxic Air Pollution

Every March, National Poison Prevention Week is recognized as a way to spread awareness about toxins of all kinds, especially ones that are detrimental to human health. A form of poison that we often do not think about is the pollution that is invading our indoor and outdoor air. Whether it is carbon monoxide (CO) as a result of vehicle exhausts or microscopic asbestos fibers from a home renovation, hidden dangers lurk within all facets of our lives.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 91 percent of the global population lives in areas where the air is deemed polluted. In order for us to combat this, we must understand how our carbon footprints are affecting the environment, and what we can do to reduce hazardous pollution that is a byproduct of our everyday activities.

Things such as carpooling or riding a bike to get from place to place can reduce CO emissions, something that can protect our well-beings in the long run. CO has been linked to short-term health issues such as dizziness, confusion, and headaches. If exposed to CO for a prolonged period of time, serious complications can arise such as permanent damage to the brain, cardiac issues, and even death. CO is also hazardous to the environment by creating a potentially harmful ground level ozone, which can create problems amongst our plants and wildlife.

For more information about carbon monoxide and the hazards associated with your health, check out the EPA’s page on CO.

With spring cleaning and home renovation season right around the corner, it is important to be cognizant of our indoor air and the toxins that we may exposing ourselves to. As mentioned previously, asbestos is a seriously harmful toxin that can create havoc within our internal organs. Asbestos is the only known cause of mesothelioma cancer, a rapidly progressing disease that is often misdiagnosed due to symptoms that mimic less severe aliments. If your home was built prior to 1980, it is vital to have it tested for asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) and other toxins such as lead and benzene before renovating and cleaning.

To get involved in National Poison Prevention Week, consider spreading awareness by sharing this article across all platforms of social media. The more people that are involved in this initiative, the faster the results will be in reducing the pollution that causes so much damage to our health and environment year after year.

For more information about mesothelioma cancer and asbestos exposure, check out mesothelioma.com.


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