2,117,931 Cigarettes

It’s strange to think I went an entire summer without writing a single blog relating to the beach, or as we say in New Jersey, the shore.  For many people visiting the ocean is a quintessential summer activity, lying (with sunscreen) in the sun and attempting to ride waves, what’s not to love? Unfortunately, as beautiful and refreshing as a trip to the ocean might be, there is also a disgusting side to it, the trash that floats ashore (think Billy Joel’s “We Didn’t Start the Fire.”) I can’t think of a time when I went to the beach and didn’t come across a cigarette butt or an empty soda can.

While going through Pinterest the other day, I came across the following share-worthy graphic of the 10 most common finds during International Coastal Cleanup 2012 from OceanConservancy.org.

Top 10 Trash Items Graphic from OceanConservancy.org

Not so surprisingly the most common find was cigarette butts, followed by food wrappers, and plastic bottles.

Ocean Conservancy and it’s volunteers have been collecting trash, and data since 1986. Ocean Conservancy has used this data to put together an Ocean Trash Index, which keeps track of volunteer participation and trash collection statistics by state and by country. To view Ocean Conservancy’s Clean Beaches and Clean Water Report for 2013 Click Here.

In response to Ocean Conservancy’s trash list I have put together a short list of tips (*some are from Ocean Conservancy) on how to keep your local beaches clean. Just because the summer is almost over doesn’t mean one should stop caring about the ocean.

  1. Use trash cans with lids to prevent trash from “escaping” and finding its way into our rivers and oceans.*
  2. Reduce the amount of trash you throw out by using reusable water bottles and tap water. *
  3. Get political when it comes to legislation dealing with ocean trash. *
  4. Use ashtrays instead of putting out your cigarette butts on the sidewalk. *
  5. Recycle *
  6. When you go to the beach make sure to leave with everything your brought.
  7. Do not release hydrogen balloons into the air.
  8. Don’t be afraid to say something if you see someone polluting.
  9. Sign up for a local clean up. Some options include volunteering through Ocean Conservancy or Clean Ocean Action.*

by Maddie Perlman-Gabel

Transform Your Junk into Amazing Masterpieces

By Guest Contributor: Anne Staley

Artists are a strange breed. I say that not because they have a stereotypical image of being mavericks, but because of their ability to see art in the most common and mundane of things.  For me, their power to transform almost anything into an artistic masterpiece is both magical and baffling.

The purpose of the post is not to discuss the idiosyncrasies or the brilliance of artists, but to appeal to the artist (dormant or active) in you to recognize the endless possibilities that lie as waste in your trash can. Yes you heard it right, your trash can!

Carhenge – View of the inner circle

If you find it hard to believe, let me take you on a trip. First stop, city of Alliance, Nebraska, US. The city is home to one of the most creative artistic sites you’ll ever lay your eyes on. Called Carhenge, it draws inspiration from England’s Stonehenge and is exclusively formed from 38 vintage American automobiles arranged in a circle and covered with grey spray paint.


Conceptualized by Jim Reinders in 1987 as a memorial for his father, Carhenge also houses several other sculptures made from automobiles in addition to the replica of England’s Stonehenge.

Cadillac Ranch – Brightly printed Cadillac automobiles

Next stop Amarillo, Texas, US, which is the site for Cadillac Ranch. Created in 1974 by the trio of Chip Lord, Hudson Marquez and Doug Michels, Cadillac Ranch is a public art installation representing the evolution of the Cadillac automobile through the years 1949 to 1963 and consists of junk or used Cadillac cars.

Cadillac Ranch – Distant view

From here, we move on to the city of Chandigarh in India, which is home to a sculpture garden made exclusively from industrial and home wastes. Christened “Rock Garden”, it was built by government official Nek Chand who used scrap and other types of waste items like bottles, glasses, tiles, electrical trash, etc. to create different types of sculptures.

Rock Garden – Sculptures made from recycled ceramics

The garden is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the city today – a fetching tribute to the brilliance of a common man who had an artist hidden somewhere inside him!

Rock Garden – Dancing girls

These are some world renowned artworks created from wastes that were definitely headed for the trash bin. There are many such extraordinary works of art across the world. Now you see why I think artists are a strange, but brilliant breed?

From junk to art!

My intention, through this article, is not to urge you to create another Carhenge or Cadillac Ranch. It is to encourage you to think creatively about what you can do to transform the junk around your home into artwork that you can proudly display or even sell for money.

But that’s not all. Creative satisfaction and monetary gains aside, there’s a bigger reason for using junk for making art. The more junk you recycle or “upcycle” in this case, the less there will be left for landfills and incinerators. You’ll be saving the environment and reducing your carbon footprint and have a beautiful piece of art to show for it at the same time.

How to Make Your Own Masterpiece from Trash!

  • To start with, you can draw inspiration from some famous artists who are known for using trash to create art. Some names that come to mind include Tim Nobel & Sue Webster, HA Schult, Derek Gores, and Andrew Chase.

The type of work they’re associated with range from animal sculptures made with metal scrap to shadow art created from trash. You’ll find many more such artists and their work on the Internet.

  • You can also use resources like Pinterest and YouTube for some wonderful ideas on artwork made from recycled material and trash. Or you can let your imagination run wild and create 100 percent original works of art from garbage.
  • Almost anything that you consider waste can be used to create art if you’re up for the challenge. For example, can you imagine turning an old record into a stylish wall clock or using glass bottles to make fancy chandelier lights and pretty vases? If you’ve an eye for color and can paint reasonably well, empty egg cartons make for interesting canvases.

You can use artwork made from junk to decorate your home, garden, patio or deck. You can also sell them on websites like eBay or put them up in your next garage sale for some cash.

But if art is not your cup of tea, don’t throw your junk into the trash can. Take it to a local scrap dealer or a scrap recycling facility in your area. For example, scrap recycling centers like SIMS Metal Management, American Scrap Metal, Biloxi Auto Recycling operates their facility for scrap recycling in Biloxi, where I spent my childhood. I am pretty sure many such facilities exist in other parts of the country.  Believe me your scrap is going to find much better use in these facilities than the trash bin!

Anne Staley is an environmentalist who likes to express her thoughts and beliefs through the written word. Her motto in life is to better the lives of others through the knowledge she shares. She loves nature and urges her readers to go green. She shares her thoughts through creative writing and blogs.

by Editor

Green Versus Sustainable

People hear a lot of talk about “green energy” and “sustainable energy”, and many times the populace assumes these are the same things. However, while the methods might sometimes be the same, the goals are often different. However, as a rule, things which are sustainable tend to be green, though not everything that’s green is sustainable.

What “Green” Means
The term “green” generally refers to practices that are environmentally friendly. To use less pop culture terms, when something is green it has a very small negative impact, or no negative impact, on the environment. For instance hybrid cars are green when compared to regular cars. Just because they are friendlier to the environment though, doesn’t mean they’re sustainable as a solution. The reason for that is, of course, because hybrid cars still use gasoline, which makes them a less-than-sustainable solution for transportation needs. Horses by comparison are more sustainable because while they’re slower, they don’t require a finite resource to keep running.

What “Sustainable” Means
Sustainable, as the name suggests, describes solutions that can keep going indefinitely without causing damage. For instance, a bicycle or horses are sustainable methods of transportation. No they aren’t as fast as automobiles, trains or planes, but they cause very little damage to the environment by comparison and they can be used over and over again without expenditure of limited resources. However, the failings of these solutions when compared to the less-sustainable ones often make them look laughable.

Where The Two Shall Meet
The goal, of course, is to bring any green technology as close to being sustainable as possible. For instance, when it comes to energy, solar panels are one instance of a sustainable and green harvester. As long as the materials to make said solar panels can be recycled and re-used, and they don’t run out, then they become a sustainable solution because they can continue to be made and replaced until energy needs are met. They’re also green because they absorb energy from sunlight, and in such a way that the environment is not negatively impacted. Certainly not in the way it would be from burning coal, strip mining and other, similar activities currently used to produce power needed by humanity.

No Silver Bullet
Part of the issue when it comes to sustainability is that there really is no silver bullet to move from current solutions for humanity’s needs to greener, more sustainable ones. For instance, despite all the research into biofuels, electric cars and other solutions to try and replace the internal combustion engine, the general consensus is that people won’t be able to just switch over to one kind of new vehicle and suddenly everything is going to be all right. In order for sustainability to really take effect, people are going to have to use a wide variety of solutions in order to do away with older, dirtier solutions.

Humanity’s needs are often so big that the demand needs to be spread out over a wider field to satisfy everyone. Whether it is power, transportation, manufacturing or any other field, the more solutions that can be engineered and put into effect, the more likely total sustainability is to take hold.

This is a guest post by Liz Nelson from WhiteFence.com. She is a freelance writer and blogger from Houston. Questions and comments can be sent to: liznelson17 @ gmail.com.

Go Green sign and Sustainability sign via Shutterstock.

by Editor

Smart Ideas for Back-To-School

Within the next few weeks millions of children (and adults) will be forced to say goodbye to summer and head back to school. As much of challenge it is transition from summer mode to school mode, I find back to school preparations and shopping particularly tasking. Even when sticking to the list of absolute necessities considerately provided by my teachers, I always wonder if I am making the right decisions, ecologically and financially. Below I have compiled a list of tips for students and parents who want to make  eco-friendly decisions when heading back to school.

Shopping for Supplies

-Before going shopping check to see if you already have supplies around the house of left over from last year. There is no need to buy things you already own.

-Buy canvas and cardboard binders and folders instead of plastic.

-Refillable pens are a great way to reduce plastic waste.

-Instead of buying mechanical pencils made from plastic, opt for mechanical pencils made from recyclable materials like newsprint and canvas.

-Buy pencils made from re-used material

-Consider the quality of the notebook and binder paper you buy. Instead of opting for the cheapest quality instead consider options that are recycled or chlorine free.

-Instead of buying backpacks and lunch bags made from nylon and plastics try organic options made from recycled rubber or hemp. You can also find lightly used backpacks at yard sales or flea markets.

-Get organized and plan to take only one shopping trip to save on gas.

While in School

-Remember to recycle paper instead of throwing it in the trash.

– If you don’t need it, don’t print it.

-When packing lunch use reusable packaging and utensils. Use a lunch box instead of new paper bags every day.

– When covering school books opt for recyclable and reusable options.

– Use reusable water bottles and tap water instead of plastic.

-Ride your bike or walk to school.

-Turn off your computer/unplug electronics when not in use.

Kid with Idea via Shutterstock

by Maddie Perlman-Gabel

The Controversy Surrounding Fracking Part II

Last week, guest author Paul Batistelli contributed an article about the controversy surrounding fracking in ENN’s Spotlight section. This week, Paul argues the case for and against fracking…


The case for fracking


  • Economic growth

In the United States, companies have struck natural gas gold in the Marcellus Shale formation in Pennsylvania, the Bakken in North Dakota and the Barnett Shale, Eagle Ford and Permian Basin in Texas. The number of drillers that have flocked to these areas have added significant economic value. According to the Dallas Morning News fracking has added about 1.6 million jobs in the United States, with the average worker earning $107,000 per year. In addition to job growth, it estimates that drilling could contribute $197 billion to the GDP by 2015 and double the amount by 2035.

  • Lower natural gas rates

The boom in natural gas has caused the prices of the commodity to drop, decreasing energy bills for millions of Americans. Aside from heating and cooking with natural gas, homes across the nation can use electricity generated by the fossil fuel. Because of the low price of natural gas, many power plants have turned to the commodity instead of coal to generate electricity. In deregulated markets like Texas, energy rates charged by companies that purchase power from natural gas distributors may be lower than those who rely on coal-generated electricity.

  • Cleaner electricity

Cost savings aren’t the only reason to use natural gas to generate electricity. Natural gas is a cleaner-burning fuel, meaning it produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions than its coal or oil counterparts. The Center for Climate and Energy Solutions released a report in June stating carbon emissions are at their lowest levels since 1994, partially because of the substitution of natural gas for other fossil fuels.

The case against fracking


  • Harmful chemicals

The water pushed into shale rock formations is swimming with chemicals that help kill bacteria and dissolve minerals. Though the exact chemical cocktail used can vary by driller, 65 of the known chemicals used in fracking are considered hazardous. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency notes that some of the chemicals can cause adverse health effects with prolonged exposure, including damage to the kidneys, liver, brain, heart and blood stream. And because the fracking industry in exempt from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, the hazardous waste created in the process is unregulated.

  • High water use

It’s not just a drop of water being used to frack natural gas, it’s millions of gallons. That much water use is an environmental concern for any state, but in drought-stricken areas like Texas, it’s an even bigger issue. Barnett Shale fracking in North Texas used more than a billion gallons of groundwater in 2009 alone, according to the Austin-American Statesman.  And because of the chemicals in the water, it can’t be treated and reused for alternative purposes. Worse yet, it’s possible the fluids pumped in the ground are contaminating drinking water, which the EPA is currently investigating.

  • Methane gas

Though natural gas is thought to burn cleaner than coal, fracking is not without a carbon footprint. When a well is fracked for natural gas, methane escapes as well. Many believe the extra release of methane gas cancels out any climate advantage of fewer carbon dioxide emissions.  Furthermore, it’s thought the added methane gas puts people’s lives in danger, from both water contamination and the risk of explosions at fracking sites.

Paul Batistelli freelances in the energy field for the promotion of a greener society and energy means. He works to raise awareness on ecological issues, energy dependency, and reducing carbon footprints. He currently resides in Dallas, TX with his lab, Copeland.

Drilling image and anti-drilling image via Shutterstock.

by Editor

We’re Gonna Need A Bigger Blog (Shark Week Edition)

I can’t remember a time in my life when I did not watch Discovery Channel’s Shark Week. Shark Week is my favorite week of the year. I’m not sure exactly what it is that draws me to Shark Week but I always make sure to watch every show at least once. I especially like shows that focus on some of the more unique species like the Saw Shark and the Greenland Sleeper Shark.

Unfortunately, over the past few years I have found the Shark Week programming more and more disappointing. Instead of shows highlighting new research or rarely seen behaviors, lately, Shark Week has been focusing on specials relating to popular culture and sensationalism. This year’s opening show, ‘Megalodon: The Monster Shark Lives’ was especially disappointing.

‘Megalodon’ is a faux-documentary, similar to Animal Planet’s ‘Mermaids’, investigating the possibility that the “dinosaur” shark Megalodon still exists. Watching ‘Megal0don’ left me thinking “Seriously?”.

I love monster movies more than most. If there’s a movie with a giant mutant creature terrorizing a city, I have most likely already seen it. But there is already a channel that specializes in that kind of fantasy, and it’s called the Sci Fi Channel. Pieces like ‘Megalodon’ have little education value and unfortunately ‘Megalodon’ also had limited entertainment value. I think I learned more about global warming and the perils facing modern sharks from the ridiculous Sci-Fi film “Sharknado” then from “Megalodon”.

I also am annoyed by Shark Week’s fascination with Great White Sharks and other “man-eaters”. There are so many species of sharks, why not show diversity to match that. I understand Great White Sharks and Tiger Sharks are the creatures of nightmares with their “soul-less eyes” and their undiscerning appetite, respectively, but am I the only person who gets sick of the repetitiveness and fascination with confrontation? Even in the shows that are supposed to focus on unique behaviors of the Great White Shark like ‘Return of Jaws’ and ‘Spawn of Jaws’, the focus of the show is more on the process of tagging the sharks then analyzing the data collected.

As of today there are three nights left of shark week. Though I will watch then all, the only show I am really looking forward to is “Alien Sharks of the Deep” which is set to show on Thursday August 8th at 10 PM Eastern Time.

Hopefully the negative reaction to this years Shark Week as a result of “Megalodon” will inspire Discovery Channel to improve the Shark Week Line Up for 2014.

Below you will find some of my favorite shark videos from the Discovery and National Geographic Channels :

How Mako Sharks Speed: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dcO1UHVNkEI

Alaskan Salmon Shark Breaching: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SOyPr28TLmg

Bull Sharks in Indian Rivers: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiXcAL3otQ4

Octupus Kills Small Shark: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NeV7yvNIScY

Tiger Shark Learns to Hunt Albatross: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fd0E1h5Yr-4&feature=c4-overview-vl&list=PLivjPDlt6ApQ8vBgHkeEjeRJjzqUGv9dV

Nurse Sharks Mating: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8uYhW-g5E4

Great Whites Feeding on Whale Carcass: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T20vkGZxULo

Shark Tooth via Shutterstock

by Maddie Perlman-Gabel

Eco-Friendly Education: Ways to Go Green

Eco-friendly education determines ways through which we can better ourselves, our society, and our environment. Currently, educational institutions seem to be overloaded with the need for budget cuts. These reports come from administrators all over the country who suggest reducing resources in order to grow efficiently.  Therefore, at this stage, education needs to adhere to the requirements and demands of scholars so as to grow green, save money and resources, and be stewards of our environment. Below are a few listed ways in which the schools could start greening themselves for an equitable survival.

Offer green certified improvement for the staff

Experts need to be taken to schools to show the staff the proper ways of adjusting learners as well as the institution throughout the working day. This features reinforcing the useful need to model the behaviors of scholars.

Class responsibilities to the environment

According to educational professionals at SolidEssay.com, which is a college paper writing service, positive roles played by the class towards their teachers and each other allows students to actively work together in coming up with solutions to respond to the greening process.

Reduction of electricity use

A large school can hold an average of 3500 computers; these machine needs to be running most of the time throughout the year. If the machines can run less hours in a week, the energy consumption would decrease thus encouraging a lower pay in terms of electricity per unit used.

Similarly, the staff can also unplug unneeded appliances and electrical leaks as well as other indispensable items at rest. This means that the power wastage will be reduced. This is according to the future of dream green organizations.

Greenhouse Gases

Foods consumed should also be examined. If schools could keep track of the fraction dimension and come up with a conclusion on how students eat, it can make different adjustments in reducing the general consumption. However, all this comes about by the styles of packaging and transportation of the bottled foods.

In conclusion, we all need to remember that every goal of human life is lingered at sustaining the capability it can hold to prolong the lives of human beings. Therefore, it is beneficial to follow a greener lifestyle.

Author bio: Evelyn is a professional freelance writer working for SolidEssay.com, which is a college essay writing service, where she helps students with their writing assignments. Learn how to write an outline in APA format.

Book image via Shutterstock.

by Editor

Pack Your Suitcases, We Are Going On A Roadtrip!

For most people summertime means taking time off work and finally taking a much needed vacation.  Though there are many transportation options available for getting to your vacation destination, many people (myself included) rely on taking a car because of the cheaper cost, the freedom it provides, and because many road trips are fun. While vacations are usually about relaxing and being carefree consider the following “green” tips:

-Before your leave your home, make sure to turn off your AC and unplug any other unneeded technologies. If no one is home there is no need to waste electricity (and money)

– If you have a choice in the vehicle you use opt for a hybrid or a car that uses less fuel. If you don’t own a hybrid consider renting a car. Car rentals are usually pretty cheap when multiple people chip in and give the trip an extra bit of specialness.

– Pack as light as possible. Excess pounds can affect a cars fuel efficiency.

– Instead of rolling down your car windows use the AC. Rolled down windows affect the aerodynamics of your car.

– Try to stay within the speed limits. Cars are usually most fuel efficient went going between 50 and 60 miles per hour.

-Opt for local goods when stopping (I like to pick up Amish licorice while driving through Pennsylvania).  Stop at local food stands along the road for fresh fruit, vegetables, and baked goods.

-Instead of buying new water and soda bottles whenever you stop, bring reusable bottles to reduce your trash output.

-If stopping or staying at a National Park be sure to follow the parks safety and preservation guidelines. Clean up after yourself! Nature is something to be shared and treated with respect.

-If you plan on smoking in your car during your trip do not throw finished cigarettes out the window, during the summer vegetation can be very dry and a risk for wild fires.

-If you are going on a long road trip and plan on staying in a hotel consider staying at a place that is green certified. Green certification relates to a business’s operational and sustainability practices including energy and water conservation, air quality, and housekeeping practices.

RoadTripping Couple via Shutterstock

by Maddie Perlman-Gabel

Art With Purpose: Graffiti Edition

CIRCA MAY 2010: Stencil graffiti piece by Banksy on a building on Mission St, circa May 2010 in San Francisco, CA

Graffiti is more than just “punks” using spray cans to sign their name in hopes of gaining neighborhood infamy. Graffiti is an art. Every artist has their own personal style and set of techniques that they use to make works of art.

Graffiti transforms everyday scenery into something more and provides artists a public medium to express their creativity and opinions. Recently two graffiti artists’, the well known Banksy and the lesser known Narcelio Grud, works have caught my eye. Their use of graffiti to address environmental and social issues is captivating to say the least. For those readers who are not fans of graffiti, hopefully these artists’ murals will change your mind.


Besides being a graffiti artist Bansky (the pseudonym he goes by since graffiti is technically vandalism and illegal) is also a film director, political activist, and painter. Though Banksy is based out of England his works can be found in countries around the world. Banksy has done many works addressing a range of environmental issues including global warming, pollution, wildlife, consumerism, and land development.

Narcelio Grud

Narcelio Grud’s most recent work in Brazil titled “Tropical Hungry” addresses the issue of food waste and hunger. Grud painted an open mouth using only discarded produce from a local market in Fortaleza, Brazil. To document the process of the piece an accompanying video is available on vimeo.

Banksy Mural via Shutterstock

*Photo for Editorial Use Only. Use of this image in advertising or for promotional purposes is prohibited.  

by Maddie Perlman-Gabel

Something Old, Something New, and Something Green

A wedding is supposed to be one of the most important events in a person’s life.  In order make their wedding day magical and memorable couples spend thousands upon thousands of dollars (according to Earth911 the cost of the average US wedding is now up to $30,000) and plan the event down to the smallest details. Unfortunately planning a wedding can be overwhelming and couples might not think of the environmental impact involved in throwing the perfect marital extravaganza.  According to Green Bride Guide the average wedding will produce an average of 62 tons of carbon dioxide and 400-600 lbs of garbage.

As a (early/belated) wedding gift to my readers I have compiled some helpful tips for throwing a greener wedding.

Invitations and Other Paper Goods

Between Save-The- Dates, Invitations, RSVP cards, and Thank You Notes many trees are sacrificed in the process of invite guests to a wedding. Though doing everything through email or online RSVP websites would be the ultimate way to reduce a weddings reliance on paper goods ,most brides and grooms want something a little classier and more substantial.  Some ways to reduce the impact of invitations include opting for invitations made from recycled paper or opting for invitations made from alternative fibers like hemp and bamboo. Consolidating inserts and invitation mailings are another way to reduce the amount paper used.


It seems like everyone I know not so secretly dreams of an exotic beach destination wedding so they can feel at one with nature when they get married. Unfortunately exotic destination weddings aren’t a very green option when you consider the environmental impact of all the travel. When planning the location for a wedding try to consider the amount of travel required by guests. Reducing travel time not only cuts the carbon footprint of the wedding but also lessens the stress for your guests.

The Dress

Shows like Say Yes to the Dress show brides spending thousands of dollars on blinged out gowns that they will only wear once.  This is a great option for the many women who want a dress of their own that they can  keep for memories after the wedding is over but a new trend in wedding dresses is buying (and selling) a recycled a gown. Not only does this allow the bride to save money but dress recycling is also eco friendly.

Another, more traditional, dress recycling option is wearing a family member’s old wedding dress and either having it fit at a tailor or repurposing it.

Sites to buy used gowns include: preownedweddingdresses.com, Smartbride Boutique, Recycled Bride, Wore It Once, and Bravo Bride


There are many options for bride and grooms who want to think green when decorating. There are many websites where brides and grooms can buy, swap, and sell decorations.

Sites to buy used wedding supplies include: Recycled Bride, Bravo Bride, SmartBride Boutique Bride to Bride Boutique, My Bridal Stuff and Ruffled.

The Feast

When planning your menu think local or opt for organic catering.  Try to serve food that is in season instead of food that requires a thousand mile journey to make it to your plate. A fun idea is to serve beer and wine from a local brewery or winery.

Also, if you have extra food after the wedding you can plan to donate it to a local food kitchen.


Crafting takes time and energy but it is also a great way to reduce the environmental impact of your wedding.  Crafting is a fun way to personalize a wedding and can be used to improve all aspects of your wedding.  Fun ideas include creating invitations from recycled cereal boxes, making center pieces out of vintage vases and flowers, and homemade wedding favors.

There is a never-ending supply of wedding craft ideas on pages like Pinterest or you can easily come up with one of your own.

Bride and Groom via Shutterstock

by Maddie Perlman-Gabel